Refraction of Light

A ray of light coming from the top left strikes the boundary surface of two media. (It is possible to choose the substances in both lists.) The medium which has the bigger index of refraction is painted blue, the other yellow. You can vary the incident ray with pressed mouse button. The applet will show the reflected and the refracted ray and calculate the corresponding angles:

Angle of incidence (black)
Angle of reflection (blue)
Angle of refraction (red)

Remark: The index of refraction varies slightly for different wavelengths. This phenomenon is called dispersion.

Physics Applets

© Walter Fendt, December 20, 1997
Last modification: June 4, 2002

This applet is part of the Contemporary College Physics Simulation Library.

trikes the cathode (C) of a photoelectric cell and causes the emission of electrons (or not). In order to find the maximal kinetic energy of the ejected electrons it is necessary to enlarge a retarding voltage by means of a potentiometer connection so much that no more electrons arrive at the anode (A). The blue coloured meter indicates the size of this retarding voltage. You can see from the red coloured meter whether electrons reach the anode.