Update Sept. 26, 2007 by JLH

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- Need a nice interactive Periodic Table? Try this one!

- Dimensional Analysis: This tutorial is specifically referred to in Chapter 1. Dimensional analysis is an essential skill in all quantative science.
- Graphing Simple Functions: A review of the techniques required to sketch (not plot) graphs of simple polynomials and how to linearize functions to produce straight line graphs.
- Graphing Oscillating Functions: Similar to the previous tutorial but dealing with sin and cos functions in the form of traveling and standing waves. Essential for Chapters 1, 2, and 4.
- Logarithms: A comprehensive review of natural (ln) and base-10 (log) logarithms. The tutorial covers definitions, numerical values and algebraic manipulation of logarithms. Essential for Chapter 2.
- Graphing with Logarithmic Paper: Instructs the student in the use of semi-log graphs to represent exponential functions and log-log graphs to analyze power laws.
- Algebra: A review of basic algebra manipulations up to the solution of the quadratic equation.
- Algebra:
Here is another excellent interactive tutorial on the Algebra of
polynomials.

- Trigonometry: A review of the definitions of the trigonometric functions and their simple interrelations. Also included is the very important CAST rule.
- Vectors: The definition of vectors (particularly in 2-dimensions) and their components. Addition, subtraction and multiplication (dot and cross product) of vectors is covered. See also the applet below for Chapter 8.
- Unit Conversions: How do you convert mi/hr to m/s? Students often find this kind of manipulation difficult. In this brief tutorial you learn how to do it with assurance amd accuracy.
- Don't know how to use a vernier
caliper? Here's an applet by
*Fu-Kwun Hwang*that will teach you how.

## Chapter 1:Vibrations and Waves

- Simple harmonic motion: Set the parameters of a mass on a spring. Set it in motion by grabbing it with the mouse and draging it down to see the resultant oscillation. Then trace out the graphs of x, v, a with time. (
Another fine applet by Walter Fendt.)- Simple Harmonic Motion: This tutorial reviews all of the aspects of SHM: amplitude, f, T, phase etc.
## Chapter2:Sound, Hearing and Echolocation

- Pipes and Harmonics: A quick review of the harmonic structure in closed and open pipes from the
U. of New South Wales in Australia. You can also connect to interesting pages on musical acoustics.- What is a decibel? Another quick review from Australia covering the meaning of the decible in sound.
- Decibel Demo: Do you want to know what a sound difference of 3, 6, 10, and 20 dB sounds like? If your computer has a sound card then try this applet.
- Longitudinal wave: Here you can experiment with a longitudinal wave in an infinitely long medium or in a pipe closed at both or one end. You can change the frequency and speed of the wave. The graphics show both the pressure waves and the molecular positions as the wave progresses.
- Superposition of Longitudinal waves: The super position of two longitudinal waves travelling in opposite directions produces a longitudinal standing wave. Here you can change the phase of the two waves and other parameters.
- Doppler Effect: An animated demonstration of the Doppler Effect by
Walter Fendt.- Motions in the Ear: The University of Wisconsin Dept. of Neurophysiology has created a series of short animations illustrating the motion of the ear drum, ossicles, and more. If you have a sound card you can also listen to speech as heard by a normal ear and ones with moderate and severe choclear damage.
## Chapter 3:Light and the Optics of Vision

- Spectrum: This applet allows you to tune across the entire electromagnetic spectrum (like a radio dial-move the indicator with the mouse). It displays the energy, frequency wavelength etc in a wide selection of units.
- Snell's Law: An interactive applet that allows you to experiment with Snell's Law. Change the angle of incidence and the indices of refraction and see the result on a beam of light waves.
An applet by Philip Dukes of Brigham Young University.- Reflection and Refraction: Shows the refracted and reflected rays at the interface between two media. You can change the refractive indices of both media. (
By Walter Fendt)- Converging Lens: This applet allows you to change the object position with a converging lens and see where the image is formed. In addition it draws the principle rays and see the graphical method of finding the image. The numerical solution of the lens equation is also given. (
An excellent interactive applet by the Sergy Kisalev and Tanya Yanovsky-Kisalev.)- Diverging Lens: Identical to the preceding except for a diverging lens.
- Visual acuity: This site presents the standard Snellen Eye Chart to measure visual acuity. (Its presentation here is not intended to replace an examination by a physician.)
- Total interna reflection: Investigate the phenomenon of total internal reflection from the point of view of a fish under water. (
By the Kisalev team.)- Dispersion: Because the index of refraction varies with wavelength, light is separated in wavelength (colour) when it enters a slab of glass. Experiment with this in this applet. (
By the Kisalev team.)- Optics of the Eye. This is a very complete site with great graphics by Thierry Baudart where you can review much of the material in this chapter. Don't neglect to use the excellent applet at the end that allows you to change the parameters of a lens to see the effects.
## Chapter 4:Absorption and Emission of Light by Molecules

- The Electromagnetic Wave. An applet by
Walter Fendtthat illustrates the generation of the electric and magnetic fields by an oscillating electric charge.- Simple Energy Level Diagram: Put an atom in an excited state and observe the emission of photons as the atom de-excites. The energy levels are in eV; can you verify the wavelengths emitted? An applet from the Virtual Lab at the
University of Oregon.## Chapter 5:Quantum Nature of Vision

- Rhodopsin: This is a web site that includes nice three dimensional movies of the structure of rhodopsin along with more information about the molecule and its function. Also included are references for the interested and links to other relevant web sites. (
By Gebhard Schertler, Cambridge U.)## Chapter 6:Radiation Biophysics

- Exponential Growth and Decay: The exponential function is perhaps the most important simple function in all of science. Here is a tutorial on exponential growth and decay; Chapter 6 is a good introduction to this topic with radioactive decay.
- Radioactivity: An applet that simulates the random processes in radioactive decay and graphs the decay of the parent and the growth of the daughter isotopes. (
From the University of Colorado Physics 2000 program)## Chapter 7:Mechanics of Biological Systems: Kinematics

- Kinematics: This applet from the
Walter Fendtlets you set the initial conditions (position, velocity, acceleration) and see the resultant motion and graphs of position, velocity and acceleration vs. time.- Projectile motion: An instructive applet which looks at the kinematics of a projectile .
(By Walter Fendt.)- Projectile motion: Another applet on projectile motion. You could use this to set up problems and check answers. To clear the trails make one run with the "trails" clicked off.
## Chapter 8:Mechanics of Biological Systems: Forces and Motion

- If you have trouble with vectors you should certainly do the tutorial on vectors listed in the remedial list at the top of the page. It is not possible to do this chapter (and indeed any good physics) without a thorough grounding in vector algebra.
- Addition of vectors: An applet that lets you add two vectors and see the graphical result. Also shown are the components of each vector and its sum. (
By Volker Augustin and Juleo Gea-Banacloche.)- Resultant of 2 or more forces: An application of the addition of vectors.
(By Walter Fendt.)- Equilibrium: Perform a virtual experiment on the equilibrium of 3 forces.
By Walter Fendt.- Friction: Perform a virtual experiment dragging a block up an inclined plane with and without friction. (
By Walter Fendt)- Conservation of Momentum: Initiate collisions in one dimension and verify the conservation principle. (
By Walter Fendt)## Chapter 9;Mechanics of Biological Systems: Rotational Motion

- Torque and Rotational Motion: A tutorial to help you with the concepts involved in rotation and the torques that cause it.
- Centripetal force: An interactive simulation experiment that lets you control the central force acting on a mass moving uniformly in a circle and check out the equations of uniform circular motion.
(Another excellent applet by Walter Fendt.)## Chapter 10:Elasticity and Scaling

## Chapter 11:Fluid Statics

- The Earth's atmosphere: This is an interactive molecular dynamics model of the atmosphere. You can change various parameters such as the temperature, molecular mass and the number of molecules. The model shows a graph of the number of molecules vs. height. (
By Prof. Christopher J. Grayce, University of California at Irvine.)- Hydrostatic Pressure: Investigate the relation between pressure and depth with this simulated experiment by
Walter Fendt.## Chapter 12:Fluid Dynamics

- Bernoulli's Equation: An applet that lets you experiment with Bernoulli's equation in a venturi tube. You can change the flow, pressure, radius etc. (
An excellent tutorial by Prof. Kinnas of the U. of Texas.)## Chapter 13:Thermal Motion of Molecules

- Archimedes Principle: This principle, which is often misquoted in Encyclopedias for example, often gives students trouble. Here you can perform a virtual experiment on buoyancy to see the principle for yourself. (
Another excellent applet by Walter Fendt.)- Brownian Motion: In this applet you can see a simulation of the collisions between a large suspended particle and the molecules of the suspending fluid. Along with this is presented a view through a microscope where, of course you can only see the large particle. (
By Michael Fowler, Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Virginia. Written by Drew Dolgert.)- Maxwell velocity distribution: In this applet you can change the temperature of a gas in a balloon and see the pressure change. In addition the distribution of molecular velocities is displayed on a graph. Be careful you dont burst the balloon! (
From the virtual lab at the University of Oregon.)## Chapter 14:Heat and Heat Flow in Biological Systems

- A nice review by
Beverly T. Lynds(with pictures) of the concepts of temperature, heat, and thermodynamics. The blackbody radiation curve is discussed and the 3 degree K temperature of the universe.- Blackbody curves: This interactive applet lets you look at 2 blackbody curves at once. You can choose the temperature of each and examine the way the total area (intensity) and peak wavelength vary with temperature. (
By Sean Russell, Amy McGraw and Greg Bothun at the University of Oregon.)## Chapter 15:Electricity

- Electric Force and Field: A nice applet that lets you see the magnitude of the electric force on a number of test charges in the presence of 1 or 2 fixed charges. The test charges can be dragged around with the mouse and the polarity of the fixed charges can be changed (right click). (
From the Virtual Laboratory at the University of Colorado at Boulder.)- DC Circuits: This tutorial has been chosen by The Discovery Channel for an excellence award. It covers the basics of Ohm's Law and the connection of resistors in series and parallel in simple circuits.
- Ohm's Law, 2 resistors: Experiment with a circuit containing up to 2 resistors. You can change the resistance values and the applied voltages. You assemble the circuit yourself. See if you can use Ohm's law to calculate the voltages and resistances. (
Another excellent applet by the Kisalevs.)- Ohm's Law, 4 resistors: Similar to the preceding but with more resistors.
- Ohms Law Experiment: In this applet you can do two virtual experiments; 1. By trial and error changing the battery and series resistor in a circuit containing a lamp, determine the current which lights the lamp. 2. Use ohms law to choose a battery and series resistor to light a lamp of known current. Good practise on Ohm's law! (
From the virtual laboratory at the University of Oregon)Chapter 16:Magnetism (4th Edition only)

- Magnetic Art. Be sure to look at these beautiful photographs taken by Minako Takeno using a magnetic fluid.
- Bar Magnet. Here is an applet by W. Fendt where you can experiment with a bar magnet and trace out its field.
- Magnetic field of a current. Again an applet by W. Fendt where you can trace out the magnetic field of a current carrying wire.